Consortium Partners


Applus IDIADA
AUDI
BMW
BME
BAST
Chalmers
Continental
Daimler
IFSTTAR
TNO
bosch
VTI
University-of-Nottingham
TOYOTA
University of Amsterdam
VOLVO
4 Active Systems
applus-idiada

IDIADA Automotive Technology SA, Spain (Applus IDIADA)


Company description

IDIADA, as a global partner to the automotive industry, provides complete solutions for automotive development projects worldwide. IDIADA’s Technical Centre is located 70 km south of Barcelona (Spain), having 26 subsidiaries and branch offices in several European, Asian, African and American countries, with a total work force of around 1800 employees.

The core services IDIADA provides are: Engineering, Proving Ground services and Homologation. Main fields of engineering activity are power train, emissions, noise & vibration, fatigue & durability and active and passive safety.

IDIADA’s proving ground is recognized as one of the best facilities in the world, and is renowned for the quality of its customer service. As a multi-user facility, safety and confidentiality are of the highest priority. Summer temperatures are ideal for hot climate tests and development programmes are able to continue independently of the weather, making this facility the first choice regardless of the type of testing.

Among the active safety engineering services provided by the company it must be emphasized:

  • multidisciplinary team, including experts in the fields of braking systems, vehicle dynamics, electronic chassis control systems, advanced driving assistance systems and intelligent transport systems
  • complete set of proving grounds and tools (differential GPS, driving robots) for all active safety functionalities development
  • complete set of laboratories for chassis systems development (kinematics and compliance test rig, brakes dynos, HiL and SiL benches for electronic chassis control systems validation).

www.applusidiada.com

AUDI

AUDI AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT, Germany (Audi)


Company description

AUDI AG (Audi) is one of the world’s leading automotive premium brands, and builds high quality, technologically progressive cars. An advanced, forward looking approach to corporate management and development constitutes the basis of our success. We place our customers’ wishes at the very heart of our unceasing quest to find ever better solutions. This philosophy is reflected in our brand claim “Vorsprung durch Technik”.

This philosophy means developing and hardening new technologies for automotive usage. Our clear goal is to bring new high quality technologies to the customers first.

www.audi.com

BMW

Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft, Germany (BMW)


Company description

The BMW Group is one of the most successful German manufacturers of automobiles and motorcycles and ranks among Germany’s largest industrial companies. The Bayerische Motoren Werke GmbH was created on 21 July, 1917 from the former Rapp-Motorenwerke GmbH.

The BMW Group brands BMW, MINI and Rolls-Royce are three of the strongest premium brands in the automotive industry today. Vehicles built by the BMW Group offer superb product substance in terms of aesthetic appeal, dynamic performance, technology and quality, and underline the company’s leading position in innovation and technology. The BMW Group also occupies a strong market position in the motorcycle segment. BMW Financial Services rounds off the successful business of the BMW Group.

Corporate sustainability is firmly established as a guiding principle of the company’s strategy and culture. The BMW Group complies with the ten principles of the Global Compact and the Cleaner Production Declaration of the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP). In addition, the company also adheres to the agreements of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the OECD’s guidelines for multinational companies and the Business Charter for Sustainable Development issued by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC).

www.bmw.com

BME

Budapesti Muszaki Es Gazdasagtudomanyi Egyetem, Hungary (BME)


Company description

The Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), founded in 1782, is one of the largest higher educational institutions in engineering in Central Europe. The university holds an international reputation for excellence in engineering education. It attracts professors and students from all over the world.

The mission of the Faculty of Transportation Engineering and Vehicle Engineering is to be the scientific workshop for all the technical, logistical, organizational and economic areas related to the transport process and vehicles which are an integral part of the system. All these areas are the basis for research activity based engineering training and education up to Doctorate level. The faculty specializes in the complex task of providing education, carrying out research and fulfilling application oriented tasks related to the establishment and operation of (passenger and freight) transport systems, vehicle design and operation, both from a global transport perspective, just as well as focusing on the individual transport modes. These assignments comprise the basic processes, the information management and economic questions too.

The faculty has been carrying out research and education in the fields of transportation engineering, vehicle engineering, logistics and transportation economics for nearly 60 years. The competences of the faculty extend to the strategic and operative planning, technology design, operation and management, financial organization, technological and economic evaluation and legal control of transport systems (both networks and vehicles) and also passenger and freight transport processes also with regard to the aspects of transport safety and sustainability.

www.bme.hu

BAST

Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen, Germany (BAST)


Company description

The Federal Highway Research Institute (BAST) is a technical and scientific research institute responsible to the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital (BMVI). BAST acts as a scientific adviser to the Federal Ministry on technical matters and transport policy and plays a leading role in the formulation of specifications and standards. BAST conducts its own research work on issues of special significance on its testing plants. Its tasks include consulting services and drawing up experts reports. BAST also assesses the quality of services and products, for which it carries out accreditation, testing, certification, acknowledgement an approval tasks and also seminars. Most of BAST areas of work involve co-operation with other research agencies, particularly institutes associated with universities and colleges. Its work is oriented towards defined aims. In 1951, BAST began to conduct research into road construction. In 1965, BAST was commissioned to increase its activities beyond road construction to include work on improving the operational efficiency and safety of roads. In 1970, BAST was appointed by the German Federal Parliament to be the central agency for road traffic accident research.
BAST took part in 102 Framework Programme projects since 1990, including 15 from the 6th FP and 30 from the 7th FP. Additionally BAST carries out around 300 annual projects of its own and for the Federal Ministry of Transport with an annual budget of 30 million Euros. BAST has a staff of more than 400 who work in more than 40 different disciplines. Engineers, natural and human scientists, economists, technicians and administration staff contribute with professional solutions to solving the diverse tasks BAST faces.

BAST officially represents Germany within the consumer testing organisation Euro NCAP and is appointed as German Euro NCAP Test Lab. BAST also partially funds and supports the German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS and therefore has unlimited access to one of the most comprehensive accident databases worldwide.
www.bast.de

Chalmers

Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola AB, Sweden (Chalmers)


Company description

Chalmers is a university of technology, founded in 1829, in which research and teaching are conducted on a broad front within technology, natural science and architecture. Teaching and research is carried out by Chalmers’ 17 departments. The departments are made up of research groups and divisions. The Vehicle Safety Division, under the Department of Applied Mechanics, was initiated in the early 1970’s and has become a respected source of road safety research. The core research activity includes Accident Prevention, Injury Prevention and expertise in Road Safety Data. The Vehicle Safety Division has a staff of 50 including senior researchers, PhD students, research engineers and researchers from the industry. The Division plays an important role in the Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre, SAFER, hosted at Chalmers where 25 partners from the Swedish automotive industry, academia and authorities cooperate within the field of vehicle and traffic safety.

The Road Safety Data (RSD) research group focuses on data analyses mainly from real-world accidents. The RSD group has an expert team performing on-scene accident investigations including methodology developments for accident causation. Relevant to this proposal the group has been involved in e.g. the EC research project for accident avoidance by active intervention for Intelligent Vehicles (interactIVe, 2010-2013) defining target scenarios for crash avoidance systems and in the Assessment of Integrated Vehicle Safety Systems (ASSESS, 2009-2012) defining test scenarios for crash avoidance active safety testing. National projects include e.g. comparing crash tests to real-world outcome on a case level. The RSD research group were leading the methodology development for safety impact assessment of integrated vehicle safety systems in ASSESS. Today RSD is excessively involved in the Mutual Recognition Methodology Development (MRMD) project together with the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) that is aimed at measuring evidence for the hypothesis that vehicles meeting EU or US safety standards would perform similarly in the opposite (EU/US) driving environment and provides input to the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations.

www.chalmers.se

Continental

Continental Teves AG & Co. oHG, Germany (CONTI)


Company description

With sales of around €33.3 billion in 2013, Continental is one of the world’s leading automotive suppliers. As a provider of brake systems, systems and components for powertrains and chassis, instrumentation, infotainment solutions, vehicle electronics, tires, and technical elastomers, Continental contributes to enhanced driving safety and global climate protection. Continental is also an expert partner in networked automobile communication. Continental currently employs around 182,000 people in 49 countries.

The Automotive Group with its three divisions Chassis & Safety (sales of approx. €7.3 billion in 2013, roughly 36.500 employees), Powertrain (sales of approx. €6.3 billion in 2013, roughly 32,400 employees) and Interior (sales of approx. €6.6 billion in 2013, roughly 34,400 employees) achieved sales of approximately €20 billion in 2013. The Automotive Group is present in more than 170 locations worldwide. As a partner to the automotive and commercial vehicle industry, it develops and produces innovative products and systems for a modern automotive future in which cars provide individual mobility and driving pleasure consistent with driving safety, environmental responsibility, and cost-efficiency.

The Chassis & Safety division develops and produces electronic and hydraulic brake and chassis control systems, sensors, driver assistance systems, air bag electronics and sensors, washer systems, and electronic air suspension systems. Its core competence is the integration of active and passive driving safety into ContiGuard.

Legal entity is Continental Teves AG & Co. oHG, Frankfurt a.M. and as “third party” A.D.C. GmbH (Automotive Distance Control), Lindau. Both Groups belong to the Chassis & Safety Division of the Continental Company.

www.conti-online.com

Daimler

Daimler AG, Germany (DAIMLER)


Company description

Daimler AG is one of the world’s most successful automotive companies. With its divisions Mercedes-Benz Cars, Daimler Trucks, Mercedes-Benz Vans, Daimler Buses and Daimler Financial Services, the Daimler Group is one of the biggest producers of premium cars and the world’s biggest manufacturer of commercial vehicles with a global reach. Daimler Financial Services provides financing, leasing, fleet management, insurance and innovative mobility services. The company’s founders, Gottlieb Daimler and Carl Benz, made history with the invention of the automobile in the year 1886. As a pioneer of automotive engineering, Daimler continues to shape the future of mobility today: The Group’s focus is on innovative and green technologies as well as on safe and superior automobiles that appeal to and fascinate its customers. Daimler sells its vehicles and services in nearly all the countries of the world and has production facilities on five continents. Its current brand portfolio includes, in addition to the world’s most valuable premium automotive brand, Mercedes-Benz, the brands smart, Freightliner, Western Star, BharatBenz, Fuso, Setra and Thomas Built Buses. The company is listed on the stock exchanges of Frankfurt and Stuttgart (stock exchange symbol DAI). In 2013, the Group sold 2.35 million vehicles and employed a workforce of 274,616 people; revenue totaled €118.0 billion and EBIT amounted to €10.8 billion.

At the center of the Daimler brand is vehicle safety. Daimler has introduced an advanced set of driver assistance functions in its Mercedes-Benz 2013-2014 S-, E-, and C-Class models, termed Intelligent Drive. For the first time in a vehicle sold world-wide, sensing includes stereo vision. Intelligent Drive includes a pedestrian safety component which facilitates fully automatic emergency braking – the system works day and night.

www.daimler.com

IFSTTAR

Institut Français des Sciences et Technologies, des Transports, de l'Aménagement et des Réseaux, France (IFSTTAR)


Company description

IFSTTAR was created on 1st January 2011, following a merger of the INRETS Institute and the LCPC Laboratory, under the status of a public scientific and technological institution. It falls under the authority of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy on one hand and the Ministry of Higher education and Research on the other. IFSTTAR conducts applied research and expert appraisals in the fields of civil engineering and building materials, urban engineering, natural hazards, mobility of people and goods, components & systems and transport safety. The use and impact of infrastructures are considered from various angles: technology, economy, society, health, energy and human.

Key figures

  • 9 site locations. Staff : 1260 employees (380 PhD students)
    Annual budget : 103 M€
  • 5 large research departments with 25 research units (7 joint research units with other R&D entities or universities)
  • 80 defended PhDs; 160 research programs (70 European projects); 110 technical expertises
  • 80 patents; 10 software applications and active licences
  • 370 scientific publications international journals

www.ifsttar.fr

TNO

NEDERLANDSE ORGANISATIE VOOR TOEGEPAST NATUURWETEN¬SCHAPPELIJK ONDERZOEK, The Netherlands (TNO)


Company description

TNO is one of the major contract research organisations in Europe. With a staff of approximately 3500 and an annual turnover of 580 million Euros, TNO is carrying out research in order to achieve impact on the following seven themes: Healthy Living, Industrial Innovation, Transport and Mobility, Energy, Built Environment, Information Society, and Defence, Safety and Security. TNO functions as an independent intermediary between basic research organisations and industry. By translating scientific knowledge into practical applications, TNO contributes to the innovation capacity of businesses and government. TNO is involved in many international projects (about 30% of the market turnover), including EU-funded collaborations. In the theme of Transport and Mobility applied research is carried out for the automotive industry and related branches. The expertise covers relevant technological aspects as well as the influence of human behaviour. The focus is on innovation in the areas of reliable transport systems and safe and clean mobility.

On the High Tech Automotive Campus in Helmond, TNO has access to a state-of-the-art hardware in the loop laboratory, a driver guidance laboratory implemented on public roads, simulation software and design tools, and several (automated) car laboratories. Strong relations exist with university research groups that are active in the same area.

TNO is secretary of the EARPA Task Force Safety, member of the ERTRAC WG “Road Transport Safety & Security” and member of the iMobility WG on Automation and Research & Innovation.

www.tno.nl

Robert Bosch GmbH, Germany (BOSCH)


Company description

With sales of approx. 53 billions Euros in 2012, the Robert Bosch GmbH (www.bosch.com) is one of Germany’s largest industrial enterprises, with significant international presence. BOSCH manufactures products at 236 locations (179 of which outside Germany), 72% of its sales were generated outside Germany. At the beginning of 2012 a total workforce of some 305,800 were employed in the three business sectors Automotive Technology (66.6% of sales), Industrial Technology, Consumer Goods and Building Technology.

BOSCH is the world’s second-largest supplier of automotive technology, amongst them fuel injection systems for gasoline and diesel engines, electric machines, systems for active and passive safety (ACC, ABS, ESP, Airbag) and mobile communication products (car radio, navigation and driver information systems).

The business unit Driver Assistance with approx. 600 employees, located in Leonberg/Germany, is investigating and developing different sensor technologies for automotive driver assistance and safety applications, like radar sensors, ultrasonic sensors and video sensors and the corresponding applications and systems that are based on these sensors.

The research department “new products in chassis systems” is dedicated to research and development of advanced systems with a focus on vehicle motion, safety and comfort. The all-encompassing goal of the department is comfortable, pleasant, safe and assisted driving. Therefore main tasks are active safety, driving comfort, vehicle guidance assistance and also fault tolerance of systems, electronics and software. At present driver assistant and safety functions like AEB (Autonomous Emergency Braking) are based on radar and video sensors of forth generation.

First embedded radar systems for adaptive cruise control were brought on the market by BOSCH at the end of the last century in 1999. First video application in a Daimler Night Vision system followed in 2005. Currently both the radar and video systems are in the third generation with continuous improvement on system architecture and integration. The ADAS development framework with a scalable and modular concept to improve functionality and information fusion is a main focus in developing next generation safety and comfort applications. To master the rapidly increasing complexity of devices and functions requires adapted and innovative development concepts to maintain or even reduce development time. BOSCH is working, together with other main stakeholders in this field, on usable and promising implementations to keep pace with the complexity and safety requirements needed for next generation ADAS functions and Euro NCAP test procedures for vehicles (AEB city & inter-urban) and pedestrians (AEB VRU).

www.bosch.de

VTI

STATENS VAG- OCH TRANSPORTFORSKNINGSINSTITUT, Sweden (VTI)


Company description

The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), is an independent and internationally prominent research institute in the transport sector. Our principal task is to conduct research and development related to infrastructure, traffic and transport. Our operations cover all modes of transport, and the subjects of pavement technology, infrastructure maintenance, vehicle technology, traffic safety, traffic analysis, users of the transport system, the environment, the planning and decision-making processes, transport economics and transport systems. VTI conducts commissioned research in an interdisciplinary organisation. Employees also conduct investigations, provide counselling and perform various services in measurement and testing. The institute has a wide range of advanced research equipment and world-class driving simulators. The Institute is an assignment-based authority under the Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications. The institute holds the quality management systems certificate ISO 9001 and the environmental management systems certificate ISO 14001. We have about 200 employees and are located in Linköping (head office), Stockholm, Gothenburg, Borlänge and Lund.

From a road user perspective, the institute conduct research on mobility, accessibility, behaviour and attitudes, especially considering travellers’ physical, mental, social and societal aspects. We also conduct research on vehicle design, infrastructure and traffic environments on the basis of road users’ and travellers’ different needs. Another area of research concerns traffic education.

Road user research is to a great extent applied research and we have access to very good experimental resources, for example advanced driving simulators, instrumented vehicles for studies in real traffic, and a physiology laboratory. The research area is interdisciplinary and the work is often done in collaborative projects with players in Sweden and in other countries in industry and at universities and other institutes of higher education.

Regarding driver support systems VTI has an extensive experience of carrying out research both in cooperation with the vehicle industry but also together with universities and on behalf of authorities.

www.vti.se

University-of-Nottingham

The University of Nottingham, United Kingdom (UoN)


Company description

The University of Nottingham is in the Russell Group as one of the leading UK teaching and research institutions; ranked in the UK and European top 30 and in the top 1% of all universities worldwide. With three campuses in the UK, China and Malaysia, the University obtains and manages substantial research funding internationally, and its finance, administration and research departments have extensive experience in administrating and contributing to EC funded projects.

The Human Factors Research Group (HFRG) has a reputation as a world-leading group in human factors and the team has expertise in ergonomics, psychology, engineering, computing and management for their transport and other industry relevant projects. The HFRG comprises a number of different teams including the Institute for Occupational Ergonomics (IOE), the Centre for Rail Human Factors and the Virtual Reality Applications Research Team (VIRART); and are associated with the Institute for Aerospace Technology (IAT), Institute for Advanced Manufacturing (IFAM) and Horizon Digital Economy Research Hub. Established since 1986, the focus of the HFRG is on understanding the characteristics and capabilities of people individually, in teams, and in their interaction with other complex systems. Website: http://www.nottingham.ac.uk

The HFRG has extensive experience in conducting Human Factors studies, particularly related to various transport modes including road vehicles. We have expertise in designing and analysing both quantitative and qualitative studies, utilising a wide range of methods, e.g. driving simulation, eye tracking, driver workload estimation, etc. The group has considerable experience of EU funded projects, both as a partner and as a coordinator – with current projects within the ICT domain (e.g. VISTRA; 3D-PITOTTI) as well as in transport (e.g. REST-RAIL; ON-TIME, VR-HYPERSPACE).

www.nottingham.ac.uk

TOYOTA

Toyota Motor Europe, Belgium (TME)


Company description

Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA (TME) oversees the wholesale sales and marketing of Toyota and Lexus vehicles, parts and accessories, and Toyota’s European manufacturing and engineering operations. Toyota directly and indirectly employs around 94,000 people in Europe and has invested over EUR 8 billion since 1990. Toyota’s operations in Europe are supported by a network of 30 National Marketing and Sales Companies across 56 countries, a total of around 3,000 sales outlets, and nine manufacturing plants. In 2013, Toyota sold 847,540 Toyota and Lexus vehicles in Europe.

TME’s R&D Group has been regularly involved in EC research and particularly in projects like FP7 ASSESS and FP7 ASPECSS in the vehicle safety area, which were developing test and assessment protocols for selected integrated safety systems with pre-crash sensing, focusing on AEB (Autonomous Emergency Braking) car-to-car technology for the first and AEB car-to-pedestrian for the second.

TME’s contribution to these projects were led by the safety team of the Technical Affairs and Planning Department which is in charge of EU and collaborative research and technical communication with 3rd parties on vehicle safety matters.

For the Horizon2020 PROSPECT Project, an additional strong support will be supplied by the TME R&D’s Advanced Technology Department. The Advanced Technology Department has got an extensive experience (more than 50 projects since 2001) in undertaking target driven academic-industry collaborative research projects. This now includes a unique expertise to merge fundamental aspects of science into application driven R&D – with excellent results as measured by scientific publications, IPR, results-transfer to pre-development as well as numerous long term relationships with top researchers.

www.toyota-europe.com

University-of-Amsterdam

Universiteit van Amsterdam, The Netherlands (UoA)


Company description

The UoA is a broad, research-intensive institution rooted in the history of Amsterdam, an internationally oriented academic community that can compete with leading universities in the Netherlands and around the world. The UoA provides academic training in all areas of science and scholarship, and welcomes students and staff – from all backgrounds, cultures and faiths – who wish to devote their talents to the development and transfer of academic knowledge as a rich cultural resource and foundation for sustainable progress.

In particular, the Intelligent Autonomous Systems group in the department of Computer Science focuses on perceiving the environment through sensors for goal-directed actions, even in dynamic situations. It is part of the Intelligent Systems Lab Amsterdam ISLA, which performs fundamental, applied and spin-off research. It defines intelligence as observing and learning; observing the world by video, still pictures, or signals, abstracting knowledge or decisions to act from these observations.

www.uva.nl

VOLVO

Volvo Personvagnar AB, Sweden (VCC)


Company description

Volvo Car Corporation (VCC), with 23200 employees worldwide, operates within the automotive sector. During the past 80 years Volvo has developed into one of the most well-known brands in the automotive industry.

VCC has 40 years experiences in collecting field data and develop requirement and test methods in the safety area. VCC has developed systems, functions and test methods in active safety for two decades. The first active safety systems were introduced in 2006. VCC has extensive experience in road tests in conjunction with the development of active safety systems and functions, and also of FOT studies evaluating the systems and functions. VCC has also experience of active safety CAE analysis based on field data.

VCC has an own proving ground for active safety, but will from 2014 also have access to the new active safety proving ground ASTA Zero. The new proving ground is in direct connection with the VCC proving ground. The new proving ground will be one of the most advanced test facilities for active safety in the world. VCC has also a close connection to the advanced VTI simulator in Gothenburg.

VCC has contributed to test method development in the safety area and has for a long time had a dialog with rating agencies such as: EUNCAP, NHTSA and IIHS. VCC has been a partner in the AEB (Autonomous Emergency Braking) group lead by Thatcham since the start 2009 and have long experience of active safety test method development.

R & D is an important factor for sustainable development in VCC. VCC has participated in a number of EC-funded projects since FP5, with a focus on projects in the areas of safety and energy efficiency. Examples of projects in the safety area: EuroFOT, interactIVe, DRIVE C2X.

www.volvocars.com

4activeSystems, Austria (4a)


Company description

4activeSystems GmbH is part of the 4a technology group. 4activeSystems focuses on dummies and testing systems for active vehicle safety. 4a technology Group is a technology- oriented group of companies with the focus on plastics engineering and polymer science. All 4a companies are linked by their joint mission statement: “in physics we trust …”

In 2006 4a designed and produced a unique test facility for active pedestrian protection systems 4activeEX which enables realistic scenarios, testing pre-crash functions with moving objects. The use of special fibre composites (95% of the test facility) minimizes the radar visibility of the system. During the testing sequence there is no direct contact between the experimental vehicle equipped with sensors and the dummy (e.g. pedestrian, rear end of another car…). At a speed of 80 km/h just 3.5 meters are left before the vehicle and the dummy collides. At this moment the system raises the dummy with high acceleration within 150 ms to avoid collision. Because of the minimal TTC (time to contact) a high testing rate can be achieved, avoiding damage to the vehicle or to the dummy, especially at high speed.

In 2011 4a started the development and production of a mobile test rig 4activeSB as the automobile manufacturers showed great interest in systems that allow collision of the dummies to the test- vehicles. 4activeSB until today has been sold to almost all important automobile manufacturers in the world and can be easily transferred, installed, operated and even transported by passenger vehicles. The extremely flat platform is traversable with 60km/h, even under full braking. An active unlocking system opens the connection between platform and dummy shortly prior to collision. The collision takes place without damaging the car or the vehicle. The dummy position is controlled by vehicle or via customized protocols. The user can operate the 4activeSB via a Wi-Fi-coupled control panel. The max. displacement of the dummy is 30m at a speed of 20km/h and acceleration of +4/-6m/s².

Parallel to this development 4activeSystems succeeded in the development of realistic dummies to work with the 4activeSB and all other important test-systems. The aim in 4activeDummy development is to create dummies which replicate human properties in size and shape. The dummies that are produced by 4a can be recognized by mono and stereo visual camera systems. Also radar and infrared systems identify the dummy; with radar system there is a homogeneous distribution of the RCS and the radar values are realistic from different views. The characteristics are strictly defined, so the dummy is reproducible. There is no danger from crashes for the dummy, and respectively the test vehicle at tests of up to 60 km/h. 4a´s static dummy, child and adult, comply with the requirements of the EuroNCAP (European new car assessment programme, webpage: http://de.euroncap.com/de) and is used by all important automobile manufacturers to test their active sensor systems. In addition to the static dummies 4a is also developing articulating dummies to improve the realistic behaviour of the dummy compared to real pedestrians.

4a´s partners can rely on a long-time experience with the surroundings and requirements connected with the development and production of test equipment and dummies for the testing of active pedestrian/cyclist protection systems. 4a can access preliminary in-house studies evaluating the necessary properties of realistic cyclist dummies and articulating dummies.